Scientific Research & Prof. Associations
Precedents in the World of Mainstream Medicine:
For people looking for a way to reconcile the LENs with mainstream medicical approaches, consider the following: One of the most common remedies for clinical depression is a form of “energy medicine”: ECT (massive doses of conventional electricity measured in volts, not microvolts, across the brain.
Consider also tCMR, or TransCranial Magnetic Stimulation, used now not only for psychoses, but depression. The only difference between these methods and the LENS, is that the conventional methods use massive currents or very powerful magnetic fields, described by those who have undergone this therapy as “a woodpecker thumping on my skull about 1x a second for 45 minutes. (recommended treatment time is about an hour. The LENS is done in seconds and minutes.)
“Health & Science News” The Week:
“Doctors at Harvard Medical Schools McLean Hospital began noticing last year that MRIs left people with bipolar disorder in much better moods. . . . it suggests that magnetic fields can alter the biology of the brain, and may cause other effects we dont understand yet.”
Whereas the LENS uses tiny currents and RF fields, but imeasured in nanowatts (billionths of a watt per square centimeter, comparable to, but much smaller than, the Brain’s own currents (usually measured in microvolts or “millionths of a volt”.)
The treatments are oriented to specific points on the International 10-20 system: The careful clinician watches the effects of each site to make sure that it has been read accurately, and note any response to the extremely brief and energetically tiny stimulus.
It is extremely hard for the LENS to do any damage, because of the minuteness of the energies involved, but it seems to stress credibility that such tiny doses of feedback (based on the dominant frequency of the brain) could have any effect whatever. In the research which follows, you will see evidence that the effects are as profound as the stimulus that produces them is tiny.
Summary of the 100 Person Study:
The report on the study published in the Journal of Neurotherapy is presented below.
Journal of Neurotherapy (ISSN: 1087-4208)
Volume: 10 Issue: 2/3
Cover Date: 2006
Publication Date: 2006
Copyright Date: 2006
Simultaneously published as LENS: The Low Energy Neurofeedback System
The LENS (Low Energy Neurofeedback System): A Clinical Outcomes Study on One Hundred Patients at Stone Mountain Center, New York
Page Range: 69 – 78
Stephen Larsen PhD, Kristen Harrington MA, Susan Hicks PhD
|Introduction. The Low Energy Neurofeedback System (LENS)developed by Dr. Len Ochs (2006a) uses feedback in the form of a radio frequency carrier wave, administered at a positive offset frequency from the person’s own dominant EEG frequency. Although it is an unusual biofeedback procedure, the feedback being invisible and the subject passive, clinical evidence supports the efficacy of the LENS across a spectrum of conditions. Published research studies (Schoenberger, Shifflet, Esty, Ochs, & Matheis, 2001; Donaldson, Sella, & Mueller, 1998; Mueller, Donaldson, Nelson, &Layman, 2001) have shown the effectiveness of the LENS method with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and with fibromyalgia. No study to date has evaluated LENS treatment across the spectrum of disorders and with a significantly large sample. This study was devised to address these issues. The study hypotheses were that the LENS treatment would be effective in reducing both systematic symptom ratings and measurements of EEG amplitudes, and that the therapeutic effect would produce the most rapid improvements in early sessions of treatment. Method. �Blinded� research associates selected the first 100 patients from approximately 300 case files that met the following inclusion criteria: the person had received at least 10 treatment sessions, completed an initial CNS questionnaire, and that session-by-session subjective symptom ratings (SSRF) had been obtained. Patients ranged from 6 to 80 years old, almost evenly divided between male and female, with a wide range of symptoms and comorbid DSM-IV diagnoses. Results. Data were statistically analyzed for significance and corelational variables. Average symptom ratings across 15 major problem areas (e.g., anxiety, mood disturbance, attentional problems, fatigue, pain, sleep problems, etc.) showed significant improvements (p < .0001) from beginning to end of treatment. After an average of only 20 treatments the mean average of patient symptom ratings (0-10) declined from 7.92 to 3.96, a 50% improvement. Equally significant was the drop in EEG amplitude at the highest amplitude electrode site (HAS; p < .0001) as well as a lesser but still significant decrease at Cz (p < .002). A final analysis of the average symptom score with the HAS score showed them to be highly correlated. All hypotheses were confirmed. Conclusions. LENS treatment appears to be very efficient and effective in rapidly reducing a wide range of symptoms. It particularly produces rapid improvements in the first five to six sessions. Recommendations for future research are provided. doi:10.1300/J184v10n02_06|
|Keywords: Neurofeedback, EEG biofeedback, LENS, Low Energy Neurofeedback System|
Introduction to LENS Research:
Building on the success of the former study with 100 subjects (phase 1, published in the Journal of Neurotherapy, Vol 10, 2/3 Stone Mountain Center conducted phase 2,increasing the number of subjects to 150, to be able to compare children and teenagers to the adult population, and we increased the number of sites monitored from two (in phase 1 of the study) to five, including the two highest amplitude, two lowest amplitudes and Cz.The study tracked changes in the amplitude (in �V) at each of the five sites, and measured the correlations of each with symptom reduction.All subjects were extracted from clinical treatment files ofStone MountainCenter and its satellite offices, treatment rendered over the last five years, and privacy practices were observed in the handling of data.Age of subjects was 5-80 and Male to female ratio was 40/60.
Patients had all completed a Central Nervous System (CNS) questionnaire at the beginning of treatment and also rated their five most severe symptoms (0-10) at each session.Fifteen symptom categories, each derived from patient reports, were tracked over the course of at least ten sessions of treatment.For this study, a follow-up was also added to see how the results held over time.No attempt was made to control for the effects of medications changes or other treatments.
1.LENS reduces the severity of of CNS dysregulation.Certain symptom areas respond more quickly, others more slowly (these differences more precisely tracked in this study than the previous one.)
2.Amplitudes at the initial two highest sites and at Cz were reduced, while the amplitudes of the lowest sites increase.
3.There is a correlation between symptom reduction and these EEG changes.
4.People of all ages respond to treatment, but children respond more quickly than adults.
5.The results tend to hold after treatment is discontinued, but these are also subject to fluctuations from other life variables over time.
The hypotheses were confirmed at high confidence levels (statistical significance).T-test statistics and multiple regressions were used to analyze data for significance and correlated variables.Longitudinal examination shows that treatment effects persist but are inversely correlated with the amount of time elapsed since the last neurofeedback treatment.
The LENS treatment is effective in ameliorating a wide range of symptoms.These positive effects vary with different symptom areas and ages of subjects.Depending upon life-changes following the discontinuation of treatment, some benefits persist, while others diminish somewhat over time.
For some researchers, the graph below was the most persuasive. Our statistician was not optimistic before she ran the figure. But there it is: a highly significant positive correlation between a lowering of amplitudes at the highest amplitude site on the brainmap, correlated with a decrease in symptomatology.
Larsen, S. (2006) The Healing Power of Neurofeedback: The revolutionary LENS technique for restoring optimal brain function.Healing Arts Press.
The LENS Neurofeedback with Animals
Page Range: 89 – 104
Stephen Larsen PhD, Robin Larsen PhD, D. Corydon Hammond PhD, Stephen Sheppard PhD, Len Ochs PhD, Sloan Johnson MA, Carla Adinaro ARIA-Cert, Carrie Chapman BA
|Background. A customary route for research in the life sciences is to begin with animal studies, and only after thorough evaluation, attempt the same procedure with humans. In this pilot clinical outcomes study, the inverse procedure is followed. Encouraging results in the areas of CNS regulation led clinicians to explore whether the method were equally effective with animals who suffered the same problems as humans. The qualities studied included aggressiveness, mood instability, hypervigilance, inability to learn from experience. Species studies over about three years consisted of horses, dogs, and cats. Method. All animals were treated on the Low Energy Neurofeedback System (LENS) using the I-330 C2, the mini-C2, or the GP plus EEG processor with a laptop computer. Unlike with human subjects, it was impossible to use �eyes-closed� condition, so blink artifact was impossible to rule out. Animals stood in stalls, tied to hitching posts (horses), or on the floor or in their owner’s lap (dogs and cats). With most animals the �stim� condition was used, with a brief second or two of stimulation embedded in a longer period of �no-stim,� four to twenty seconds depending on the situation. Where possible, a cortical map was done of from ten to twelve sites on the animal version of the standardized mapping system developed by Holliday and Williams (1999, 2003) to match human mapping. Since it has become available several months ago, the Animal CNS Questionnaire was used, and a five symptom or more �Subjective Symptom Checklist� completed on each treatment session with the owner. Narrative reports were collected from owners, but also from professional animal trainers and handlers. In some cases animals were photographed or videotaped before and after. Results. The animal studies are similar in outcome to the human results. As judged by owners, independent witnesses and professional trainers and handlers, animal behavior improves in the dimensions of flexibility, calmness, emotional stability, intelligence and problem solving The authors did not feel placebo �controls� were necessary or appropriate to these experiments. They had head injuries, survived natural catastrophes, or were abused or neglected (sorry to say) by owners. What was observed, in case after case, is that the more treatments administered the �easier� it became to administer additional treatments (animals were more complaint and calm). Conclusion/Discussion. Results with animals are parallel to and confirmatory of results with human children and adults. Animals may be traumatized by many causes, not the least of which is human in origin. Thus it is rewarding to see a human procedure help them. With treatment, the animals seem more calm, adaptable, and natural. Some of the results resemble the easy and short-term treatments of human children and infants, who have not yet had a chance to acquire (more difficult to dislodge) habits and defense mechanisms around their problems. These studies are highly preliminary, but very encouraging. The authors would love to see the LENS method applied to a variety of species and in ever-increasing numbers. doi:10.1300/J184v10n02_08|
|Keywords: Neurofeedback, EEG biofeedback, veterinary, behavior modification, animal behavior, animal training, animal EEG|
In general the population of professionals who provide, and interested clients who receive biofeedback or neurofeedback are served by two professional associations:
Associated with the AAPB is the BCIA or Biofeedback Certification institute of America, which both certifies professionals, and maintains a registry of certified professionals in the fields of biofeedback and neurofeedback.
The International Society for Neurofeedback and Research: (ISNR)
Is the professional association for the field of EEG biofeedback or Neurofeedback. 800-488-3867, isnr.org.
Unit B PMB 128; 3620 Tenth ,Greeley, Colorado 80634